MLB 101

Leagues & Divisions: 

  • The MLB is split into the American League and National League.
  • Each league is split into three divisions; East, West, and Central. 
  • There are five teams in each division, 

American League:

  • AL East:
    • Baltimore Orioles
    • Boston Red Sox
    • New York Yankees
    • Tampa Bay Rays
    • Toronto Blue Jays
  • AL Central:
    • Chicago White Sox
    • Cleveland Indians
    • Detroit Tigers
    • Kansas City Royals
    • Minnesota Twins
  • AL West:
    • Houston Astros
    • Los Angeles Angels
    • Oakland Athletics
    • Seattle Mariners
    • Texas Rangers

National League:

  • NL East
    • Atlanta Braves
    • Miami Marlins
    • New York Mets
    • Philadelphia Phillies
    • Washington Nationals
  • NL Central
    • Chicago Cubs
    • Cincinnati Reds
    • Milwaukee Brewers
    • Pittsburgh Pirates
    • St. Louis Cardinals
  • NL West
    • Arizona Diamondbacks
    • Colorado Rockies
    • Los Angeles Dodgers
    • San Diego Padres
    • San Francisco Giants


  • Baseball is played between two teams of nine players each. 
  • In a baseball game, there are 9 innings.
    • Each inning is divided into two halves.
      • The top of the inning occurs first when the visiting team is up to bat.
      • During the bottom of the inning, the home team is batting.  
  • Baseball is played on a diamond-shaped playing field. 
  • The four corners of the diamond which form the infield are:
    • First base
    • Second base 
    • Third base
    • Home Plate 
  • In the middle of the infield is the pitcher’s mound where the pitcher will stand to deliver the ball to the batter.
    • The pitching mound dimensions are: Diameter of 18 feet and 60.5 feet from home plate 
    • Pitching Rules:
      • Once the pitcher is standing on the rubber
      • A balk is considered when:
        • An illegal motion on the mound that the umpire deems to be deceitful.
          • Flinch on the mound.
          • Deceptive pick off attempt.
          • Dropping the ball after becoming set.
  • There are 90 feet in between each base, and they are all drawn at a 90-degree angle to each other.
    • Baserunning Rules:
      • A baserunner must stay within the designated running lane. If the baserunner goes out of this running late, the umpire can declare him ‘out of the basepath’ and be ruled out.
      • A runner may not pass another runner ahead of him or he will be called out.
      • A runner in fair territory cannot make contact with a ball that has been hit in play unless it has been thrown. 
      • A coach may not make contact with a runner in fair territory.
      • A player may not disrupt a fielder from making a play.
      • If a fielder impedes a player, he is awarded the base.


  • A team is awarded one run for every player that crosses home plate safely.
  • The game will extend past the nine innings if a tie has occurred.
    • A runner will start on second base at the beginning of the extra innings. 
    • If the away team scores a run, the home team gets a chance to tie or win. If the home team scores first, it is considered a “walk-off win” ending the game immediately.  

Replay Rules 

  • Coaches have one challenge in regular season games and two in all-star, playoff, and tiebreaker games. 
  • If the challenge is successful, the coach will then retain his challenge.  
  • If a challenge is unsuccessful, then the coach loses his challenge for the rest of the game. 
  • Managers must challenge the play within 20 seconds of the play 
  • The Crew chief can call for a video review in the 8th inning or later 
  • The New York City video crew must come to a decision within 2 minutes.  

What is a Reviewable Call? 

  • Home Runs 
  • Foul and Fair balls behind the infield umpires
  • Boundary calls 
  • Outfield Catches 
  • Baserunning calls 
  • Force out/Tag outs 
  • Players hit by a pitch 
  • Tag up calls 
  • Home plate collisions 
  • Double-Play interference 
  • Runner Placement 
  • Fan Interference 
  • Catcher Interference

Pitch Clock 

  • In an effort to make the pace of play pick up, in 2023, the MLB implemented a pitch clock. In between batters, there will be a 30-second timer. Between pitches, there will be a 15-second timer with bases empty and a 20-second timer with runners on base. 
  • The pitcher must start his motion before the expiration of the pitch timer. Pitchers who violate this will be charged with an automatic ball.  
  • Batters must be in the batter’s box and alert the pitcher by the 8-second mark or be When runners are on base, the timer resets if the pitcher attempts a pickoff move or steps off the rubber. Pitchers are limited to two disengagements per plate appearance. If a third attempt is made, the runner automatically advances to a base. 
  • Mound visits, injury timeouts, and offensive team timeouts do not count as disengagements. 
  • Teams get 5 mound visits before the ninth inning. If they use all five prior to the ninth inning, they will receive an extra, but it serves as an additional disengagement. 


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